Uday Kishore has edited a book: Microbial Pathogenesis. My contribution was to write a foreword (see page vii on this link) highlighting the importance of understanding infectious disease, and to contribute to a chapter on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. This chapter is unfortunately not open access (being in a book) and is behind a paywall. You may have to access through an institutional subscription or contacting the senior author though a site such as researchgate.
This is an academic chapter and not aimed at the general reader but it describes how SARS-CoV-2 causes disease and the nature of the immune response against it.
Warning: this is a fast moving area, and new things are found on a daily basis. So while this chapter gives the latest information at the time it was written - it will inevitably be overtaken by new findings and understandings.